Hardy Spicer
Types of universal joints

This type of joint is also called a Hooke-type coupling as it was developed from the joint invented by Robert Hooke in the seventeenth century. This joint is commonly used today. The joints A and B represent the basic and developed forms respectively. They use two yokes set at 90 degrees to each other and a cross-shaped trunnion block joins these yokes. In more developed joints like Hardy Spicer type, contact between the two parts is made by needle roller bearings held in a hardened steel cup retained in each arm of the yoke. For the alignment of the trunnion, the bottom of the cup forms a contact with the end of the block.
Fig. Types of universal joints.
A. Hooke-type joint.
B. Cross type joint (Hardy Spicer).
C. Cross-type with rubber bushing.
D. Layrub.
E. Doughnut rubber coupling.

Ford, Dodge, BMW, Volvo, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Mazda, LandRover, KIA JEEP, Hyundai, Honda, Holden
Used HardySpacer as a CV and a CVJ (Rzeppa type)

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patent №728,779

У Александра Вильямса появились сторонники.
В начале века автоиндустрия еще проходила становление. Конструкторы были вольны в своем выборе, никакой стандартизации не существовало. Однако это длилось недолго. Как только автомобиль заявил о себе, как о средстве, влияющем на военную мощь, сразу были приняты меры по наведению порядка в отрасли. Дело было так. В 1917 г. США готовились к войне, и армии требовался грузовой автомобиль, изготовленный из стандартизованных компонентов, и потому не зависящий от какой-либо частной компании. Требовалось разрабатывать общие подходы, узлы и агрегаты. Правительство собирает в Вашингтоне представителей ведущих компаний отрасли. Для работы над проектом были приглашены и инженеры Spicer Manufacturing Company. Результатом этой работы стал Standard B или грузовик Liberty. Стандартом для многих узлов ходовой части и подвески стали разработки Spicer. Кларенс В. Спайсер получил патент patent №728,779 на практический автомобильный универсальный шарнир 19 мая 1903 года. Название SPICER идет рука об руку с NAPCO.
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1958

ClarenceW.Spicer invented the first viableautomotive universal joint, which he used to develop a driveshaft for transferring power from the engine to the axle. Before Spicer’s invention, power transmission in automobiles was accomplished by a chain and sprockets.He foundedthe Spicer Universal Joint Manufacturing Company, which would eventually become the Dana Corporation. Spicer was bornon an Illinois dairy farm on November 30, 1875.The Spicer family owned a creamery, whereClarencelearned rudimentary mechanicalskills watching his father repair machines in the shop.HeattendedaSeventh Day Baptistschool–Alfred University in New York–where he met his wife Anna Olive Burdick.Spicer moved home to Illinoisin1894 to help run the family business, he married Burdick in 1896and moved to New York to attend Cornell Universityshortly after. At Cornell,heconceived the idea for the driveshaft.Spicer built an experimental car in 1903 that proved his universal jointwassuperior to the awkward, easily broken chain drivesthat propelled automobiles of the era.TheSpicer Universal Joint Manufacturing Company wasestablishedin Plainfield, New Jerseyin 1905. In 1914, Charles Dana joined the company, put it on a solid financial foundation, and assumed leadership. Spicer remained with the companyfor several years after,and eventually held 40 patents for a variety of inventions. He died in Miami,Florifa, in 1939 at the age of 64.
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Willys MB (1941-1945) Dana 25 Front Axle

Создание нового транспортного средства – первого легендарного джипа, не обошлось без компании Spicer
The Dana 25 came with with three different styles of axle shaft joints, the Cardan-Cross style being the best.
1967 GKN acquired Birfield Industries including its subsidiary Hardy Spicer and Co of Birmingham, which became GKN Birfield Transmissions, part of GKN Transmissions. Hardy Spicer made constant-velocity joints which, historically, had few applications, even following the improved design proposed by Alfred H. Rzeppa in 1936. In 1959, Alec Issigonis had developed the revolutionary Mini motor car which relied on such joints for its novel front wheel drive technology. The massive expansion in the exploitation of front wheel drive in the 1970s and 1980s led to the acquisition of other similar businesses, such as Vandervell Products, leading to a 43% share of the world market by 2002.
Rzeppa with dividing lever

Принципиальная разница оказалась по ШРУС-ам.
Первый автомобиль, получивший обозначение ЗИС-32С (или ЗИС-32с), отличался конструкцией переднего моста. В нем использовались ШРУС-ы производства Spicer Manufacturing Company (ныне Dana Incorporated). Разработанный Кларенсом Спайсером и запатентованный в 1924 году ШРУС Spicer являлся более доступной альтернативой. Была еще одна модель ШРУС, разработанная Карлом Вейсом. Она выпускалась силами Bendix Corporation и известна как Bendix-Weiss. Эти ШРУС-ы также испытывались на советских машинах, но существовала ключевая проблема. Bendix Corporation производила ШРУС-ы, но не продавала лицензию. Поэтому выбор остался между сложной продукцией Рцеппы и более простым детищем Спайсера.Естественно, вторая машина, ЗИС-32Р (или ЗИС-32р), оснащалась ШРУС-ами «Рцеппа». Вариант с более сложными по конструкции ШРУС-ами оказался легче на 25 кг (3600 кг против 3625 кг у ЗИС-32С). В октябре 1940 года обе машины проходили полигонные испытания, которые закончились слегка неоднозначно. С одной стороны, машины показали более высокую проходимость, что явно шло им в плюс. А вот с другой, вылезли различные дефекты, которые завод обязали исправлять. Насчет ШРУС-ов однозначного вывода не сделали, хотя очевидно, что сам завод делал ставку на более удачную конструкцию «Рцеппа». Но здесь уже вылезали производственные проблемы. Можно сколько рисовать постановлений, но пока нет ШРУС-ов, сотрясание воздуха не имело никакого толка. Поэтому и трехосный ЗИС-36 строили в двух вариантах, причем на испытания в 1941 году отправился образец со ШРУС-ами «Спайсер».
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Front Axle Shaft

Jeep MB (1941-1945)
Jeep GPW (1941-1945)
Jeep CJ-2A (1946-1949)
Jeep CJ-3A (1949-1953)
Jeep CJ-3B (1953-1964)
Jeep CJ-5 (1955-1971)
Jeep CJ-6 (1955-1965)
Jeep CJ-6 (1966-1971)
Jeep M38 (1952-1952)
Jeep M38-A1 (1953-1971)
Dana-44 front axle

The Dana 44 . was introduced after World War II and is commonly found under the front and rear of a wide variety of vehicles. Starting in 1972, modern factory Dana 44’s had 30-spine axle shafts with a thickness of 1.31 inches (earlier axles were 10- or 19-spline). Spicer (Dana) 44 axles use an 8-1/2-inch ring gear bolted to the carrier by 10 bolts that are 3/8 x 24 right-hand thread. The case itself is 9-3/8 inches in diameter. The cement mixer-shaped differential cover also has 10 bolts. The input on the pinion shaft is 1-3/8-inch in diameter and has 26 spline. Original ring and pinion gears were produced from 8620 steel, making this assembly capable of handling most engine horsepower and torque specifications. Although not as strong as its big brother, the Dana 60, it is quite a lot lighter than the 60 without sacrificing much in the way of strength. Axle shafts are 1-1/8 inches in diameter with 30 spline 1-5/16-inch ends. The Dana 44 became available in the early Ford Bronco’s from 1971-1977. Axles prior to that point were the Dana 30.
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GKN Hardy Spicer Limited

GKN Hardy Spicer Limited Hardy Spicer was established in 1925 as a rear wheel drive automotive components manufacturer. In 1959, the Constant Velocity Joint was successfully developed and Hardy Spicer went into mass production of the CVJ Driveshaft, supplying the British Motor Corporation's Mini Car Project.Today the company produces a comprehensive range of fixed and plunging joints, for the World's automotive industry. GKN's commitment to the industry is reflected in its investment in GKN Hardy Spicer Ltd of over £30 million since 1985. The "Partnership for Change" management system provides an overall focus for the business and formalises the process of change. "Targets for Operational Performance" monitor the day to day achievements, and provide all employees with a visual display of performance against key business priorities. External quality awards achieved include BS5750, Ford Q1, Toyota VA/VE Award, as well as three Quality Excellence Awards from Rover Group. We are also a recognised "Investor in People" Company.
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